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In 1862 this issue gained an unlikely champion in the appointment. The emperor wavered between the liberals, whose anticlericalism and parliamentarianism he disliked but with whom he sympathized in their centralist German-oriented policy, and the conservatives, whose political legislation he favoured but who aroused his fears by their demands for federalization. Embittered by the conduct of the German liberals, Franz Joseph on October 2 entrusted the task of solving Austrias problems to a Polish aristocrat, Kasimir Felix, Graf (count) von Badeni, known as a strong man for the high-handed way in which he had acted. After Gautsch resigned in March 1906 and his successor, Conrad, Fürst (prince) von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, failed to master the situation, Max Wladimir, Freiherr (baron) von Beck (Austrian prime minister from June 1906 managed to carry the bill through parliament. The Serbs adopted an expansionist policy of unifying all South Slavs in the Serbian kingdom, and, in order to block a Serbian advance, the Habsburg monarchy applied economic pressure. On November 21, 1916, Franz Joseph died, leaving the throne and the shaky empire to his 29-year-old grandnephew, Charles (I), who had had little preparation for his task until he became heir apparent on the death of Franz Ferdinand. After the dismissal of Hohenwart, the Czechs turned to passive resistance, withdrawing from the Bohemian diet and again abstaining from attendance at the parliament in Vienna. The Three Emperors League was an important element in the structure of alliances that German chancellor Bismarck set up to stabilize Europe. On February 5, 1871, he appointed as prime minister Karl Siegmund, Graf von Hohenwart, a staunch clericalist. While the European governments frantically tried to offer compromise solutions, Austria decided on a fait accompli. Charles relied heavily on the advice of politicians who had had the confidence of Franz Ferdinand. More than 50 parties had competed in the campaign, and, since the German nationalist parties had allied in the Deutscher Nationalverband (German National League they managed to return to parliament as the strongest single party, gaining 104 seats out of 516. Resistance was so great that by 1865 the constitution was considered unworkable, and Francis Joseph began negotiations with the Hungarians to revise. In addition to regulating the constitutional relations between the king and the Hungarian nation, Law XII accepted the unity of the Habsburg lands for purposes of conducting certain economic and foreign affairs in common. From 1890 on, the advance of the Social Democrats and the Christian Socialists caused considerable tension in Vienna.

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The so-called Gründerjahre, or years of expansive commercial enterprise during the late 1860s and early 1870s, however, were characterized not only by railroad and industrial expansion and the growth of the capital cities of Vienna and Budapest but also by reckless speculation. Although Kálnoky succeeded during the negotiations in avoiding any new obligation in western Europe, he was less successful in defending more-immediate Austrian interests. Taaffe first tried to form a cabinet above parties. While Schönerer and Pan-Germanism appealed to the educated classes, Karl Lueger transformed the Christian Socialism of Karl, Freiherr (baron) von Voegelsang, into a political organization that appealed to small shopkeepers, artisans, tradesmen, and lower bourgeois circles of Vienna and the surrounding countryside. Seven Weeks War or the Austro-Prussian War. After the disbandment of the. These laws granted equality before the law and freedom of press, speech, and assembly; they also protected the interests of the various nationalities, stating that all nationalities in the state enjoy equal rights, and each one has an inalienable right to the preservation and cultivation. In 1908, however, international complications diverted attention from domestic affairs. The common monarchy consisted of the emperor and his court, the minister for foreign affairs, and the minister of war. The Three Emperors League (comprising Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary) of the same year brought Russian recognition of Habsburg predominance in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. While definitely not a German nationalist, he was determined to extend Prussias power and authority into the German lands, and he knew that Prussia could expand its influence.

parts of the Habsburg monarchy were constitutionally autonomous, each having its own government and. On July 28, 1914, Berchtold asked Franz Joseph to sign the declaration of war, informing him that it cannot be excluded that the Triple Entente powers Russia, France, and Great Britain might make another move to bring about a peaceful settlement of the conflict unless. Full of the best intentions, Charles set out to save the monarchy by searching for peace in foreign affairs and by recognizing the rights of the empires non-German and non-Hungarian nationalities. Because the school had been exclusively German, this was regarded as a grave blow to the German cause, and the German liberals resigned, forcing Windischgrätz himself to resign. Andrássy failed to induce the Ottoman government to adopt a reform program, and by 1876 Russian intervention seemed imminent. As Austria had been excluded from the future of Italy in 1859, so it was now excluded from the future of Germany. Francis Joseph that neoabsolutism had failed. Franz Joseph made Koerber prime minister once again, but Koerber had no chance to develop a program of his own. How little the outward calm in the Habsburg lands corresponded to the sentiment of the population became apparent when Stürgkh was assassinated in October 1916 by Friedrich Adler, the pacifist son of Victor Adler, the leader of Austrian socialism. According to that program, Bohemian affairs should be regulated along the principles of the Hungarian compromise, raising Bohemia to a status equal to Hungary. Having decided to rely on Austria-Hungary as the fundamental partner in international affairs, Bismarck had to try to neutralize all the areas in which the Habsburg monarchy might be drawn into a conflict. ..






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Aehrenthal died in February 1912, at a moment when an Italian-Turkish conflict over Tripoli (now in Libya) had provoked anti-Turkish sentiment in the Balkan states ( see Italo-Turkish War ). In the same year, an electoral reform reduced the tax requirement for the right to vote from 10 to 5 florins, thus enfranchising the more prosperous Czech peasants and weakening the hold of the German middle class. Aehrenthal had been able to silence the warmongering activities of Conrad, the Habsburg chief of staff who continued to advocate preventive war against Italy and Serbia, but Berchtold yielded to the aggressive policies of the military and the younger members of his ministry. Neither the Social Democrats nor the Christian Socialists acquired any significant influence on the shaping of Austrian government affairs. The political victory of German capitalism took place at the very moment of a severe economic crisis. This first bill, introduced to parliament in February 1906, ran into the opposition of the middle-class and conservative parties that still controlled parliament. The setbacks that the Austrian army suffered in 19 can be attributed to a large extent to the fact that Austria-Hungary became a military satellite of Germany from the first day of the war, though it cannot be denied that the Austrian high command proved. The government in Vienna did give the Poles in Galicia a considerable amount of self-government, which was later used to Polonize the Ruthenian minority. On October 27, 1871, Hohenwart was dismissed, and Franz Joseph returned the government to the hands of the German liberals. The new system, however, preserved the old division of the electorate into curiae (socioeconomic classes making parliament in this way a representation of German bourgeois interests. Bismarck was a Prussian patriot and a loyal subject of his king. The Christian Socialists, weakened by personal rivalry, suffered heavy losses, winning only 76 seats. In February and October 1913, military action against Serbia was contemplated, but in both instances neither Italy nor Germany was willing to guarantee support. Badeni managed to induce parliament to accept a compromise franchise bill that introduced qualified universal male suffrage but preserved the system of class voting (a fifth curia was even added).

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Wirkung artischocke fürth Andrássy, fearing that the Czech program could incite minority groups in Hungary, convinced Franz Joseph that the stability of the Habsburg monarchy was endangered by the Czech program. The common ministers were responsible to the crown only, but they reported annually to the delegations.